Introduction:Ethics is a collection of knowledge that deals with moral principles (i.e. act of right or wrong that is accepted by an individual or a society group) and theories is a set of principles on which practice of an activity is based. Ethical theories are more applicable in each sector and more used in ICT industry. So, the field of morals has a wide level of martialness in different division. The main purpose of report is to elucidate all main theories of ethics that’s applied in ICT and skilled code of ethics related to the ICT industry. This report covers moral theories associated with ICT and describe every of the them in details and this report highlights the comparison and distinction between all moral theories (i.e. rights vs virtue, relativist vs objectivist and consequentialist vs deontology)
- Virtue ethics
- Theories of ethics: Rights
- Theory of Relativist:
- Theory of objectivist:
- Theory of consequentialist:
This theory defines an individual activity as ethically right or wrong by judging the same based on the individuals character involve on the same rather than act itself or virtue is a trial which allows one to fulfil one’s character well. For instance, what is required to be an excellent professor is different than what is required to be an excellent soldier because soldier and professor both have different function.
There are three main components of this theory that are described shortly below:
a. Eudemonism: this is the component of excellence morals that says the essential point of individuals in his/her life is thriving or bliss or live well life. A virtue that empowers a person to accomplish prime objective of life that is bliss contributes in the prosperity and prompts great life.
b. Ethics of fidelity and self-care: This virtue ethics suggest that the significance of community, commonality and relationship lies on top of the universal lies means on top of the universal standards and fairness. This theory requires that we treat people closer to us with special care. This theory have a novel responsibility to worry for ourselves, affectively, mentally, physically, and spiritually.
c. Agents based theories: This is the third components of morals theories that portrays a specific activity of the specialist or gives the moral judgment based on moral sense.
This above element of virtue ethics connected to the field of ICT however there are couple of examples which are considered ethically untrue by other moral speculations but assume awesome part on the stage of Virtue ethics. For example, transfer of films, songs and video and alternative proprietary content from net may be an ordinarily apply done by several users. Which Is considers as morally mistaken by hypotheses, for example, Consequentialism. No matter how, on the basis of virtue ethics it is consider as ethically correct it prompts the joy of people. It conjointly says that the content downloaded from net for amusement and private joy and share to families and friends then there’s nothing wrong within the activity.
The second theory of ethics and its parts that applied to ICT is that the theory of rights where action or decision would be considered as ethically corrects if it respects the rights of other people. Rights theory is the subset of deontological theory which are provided to the individual when the discussion is on the rights. There are many different types of rights. Some of them are the major rights that people have legal rights, human rights and contractual rights. right to vote is legal right because it arise from law and legally enforceable freedom of speech is an example of basic human rights that all people should be entitled to because they are human being while contractual rights arise from agreement or relationship. For instance, right to purchase a particular product or service, right to be sell a product or service, rights to be the only seller or buyer are come under contractual rights.
The theories applied to ICT business because it portrays a specific demonstration by estimating it with the rights that are given to a person. For example, there are particular laws in every single nation that denied people to transfer particular class of substance on the web which significantly incorporates the substance that may hurt a political branch or the legislature. but this theory permits every and each people to use his/her rights totally to expression and belief.
This is additionally the speculation of ethics which is applicable in each sector that structures its choice on the way that mortality is in respect to traditions, practices, conviction and standards of the one’s way of life and society. That is different societies have different moral codes which determines what is right or wrong in that society. Calling the action ethically right in that society makes it right which action may wrong to other society and there’s no objective standard that can be use judge one society’s code against another.
This theory applies in the ICT world. For instance, Facebook is a site that is obstructed in certain piece of the world. Likewise, there are a sure number of association that permit the utilization of Facebook and other informal communication application while some of them disallowed people from the utilization period of such applications due to legitimized reasons according to the standards of the general public. Be that as it may, there is no limitation on these applications in alternate parts of world.
In moral objectivism moral qualities and ideals are free on anything outside of them. In moral objectivism moral law is uncreated and interminable and not subject to any will, heavenly or human. Moral absolutism is additionally one kind of moral objectivism. No will can lessen the outcome of acts illegal. There is no beauty in ethical objectivism. so as to avoid penalty, one should excellent one’s life and follow the law absolutely. The law of destiny, continuous birth, death and rebirth till such ethical perfection Is reached, seems to be the last word expression of moral objectivism.
This hypothesis recommends that any movement within the world of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry will be considered as morally right of its sticks to the laws that flow and deal with the same. For example, downloading copyrights files from internet is consider as ethical correct over virtues ethics while the can be legal punishments regarding such act which is consider as morally off base under the hypothesis of objectivism.
This hypothesis of morals says that a demonstration is ethically right just and just if the final product of a similar demonstration don’t hurt any reality in any capacity. There are two essential standards in the hypotheses which are incorporated beneath:
- The consequences of the act confirm if the character of act is correct or incorrect
- The number of negative results of associate degree act verify the incorrectness of the act and vice-versa
There are diverse types of this hypothesis, for example, hedonism says that human joy ought to be on top need in a demonstration while then again utilitarianism says that the utility of act is of prime significance.
Its activities are applicable in the ICT industry. There are act which are defended based on other moral hypotheses however as named as ethically false based on the negative result of the same. For instance, the case of downloading of the proprietary content from the web at no cost is ethically correct only by virtue ethics if same act is connected for individual advantage. In principle of consequentialism this act is consider as ethically incorrect since same ends up in loss for the owner of the content who upload that files on the internet. Despite the fact that there might be lawful commitments for the substance suppliers and the client. Major result out of this act cause injury to the associated parties and thus, virtuously and ethically incorrect.
Deontology theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. Kant believed that moral actions follow universal ethical laws like don’t lie, don’t steal and don’t cheat. this may be merely apply as a result of it’s simply needs that individuals follows the principles and do their duty that tends to suit well with our natural intuition regarding what’s or isn’t moral. This theory doesn’t contemplate the outcomes, consequences or virtues behind associate degree act as a result of people merely have to be compelled to follow set of rules.
Comparison of theories
Professional code of ethics and practices:
I. Australian computer society(ACS) code of ethics
The Australian computer society code of ethics is part of the ACS constitution. this in light of number of society esteems, for example, priority of the public interest should be way above the personal, business or sectional interests, improvement of quality of lifetime of those full of the work, honesty is that the illustration of skills, knowledge, services and merchandise, ably and diligently alongside skilled development and expertise
Ia. Connection between code and ethical theories
There area unit moral theories that show all the principles that area unit gift within the ACS code of ethics like those of the idea of consequentialism and objectivism. whereas theory of ethics doesn’t come back to first priority in ACS code of Ethics that says public interest ought to be higher than the private interest. however just in case of virtue ethics it’s okay to place personal interest at prime level.
II. ACM and IEEE Codes of Ethics
There are seven controlling rules that oversee the Code of Ethics.
- The assets in the field of ICT must keep the general population enthusiasm over the individual intrigue
- The interest of the consumer and leader should be thought-about and amalgamated with the general public interest
- Proficient guidelines and best practices must be followed in each and every phase of the venture course of events
- The skilled judgment should embrace the weather of integrity and independence
- A moral approach might be trailed by the directors and pioneers to oversee and keep up the undertaking exercises
- Integrity and name of the profession should be per the interest of the general public
- Team spirit coordinated effort and participation must be of abnormal state and the reasonableness might be kept up
Connection between codes and ethical theories
The ethical theories that are mentioned higher than attach to those principles as each single theory supports that the most effective practices should be followed, and therefore the harmony is additionally inspired by all. one among the theories that varies from the principles of ACM and IEEE computing is virtue ethics that place personal interest higher than the general public interest.
There square measure varied varieties of moral theories that square measure applicable in ICT business. These theories have nice relationship between the codes of ethics that’s utilized in the skilled ICT business. These all totally different principles that square measure somehow similar in some cases and for the most part distinction in different cases. Theory of virtues ethics forms judgment on the premise of the happiness that’s created by associate act associated theory of consequences judges the on an equivalent of positive and negative implications of an act. In distinction, theory of deontology relies upon the adherence to the rule that governs associate action whereas theory of objectivism justifies associate act on the extent of adherence to the law that could be a similar parameter.