Dorothy Johnson’s Nursing System is one of the most important nursing theories. Nursing systems are a way of classifying and grouping nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. They provide a framework for nurses to use when caring for patients.
Johnson’s Nursing System is based on eight concepts: health, environment, person, nurse, family, group, society, and world. These concepts are interrelated and affect each other. For example, a person’s health is affected by their environment, and their nurse can influence their health.
The Nursing System is important for several reasons. First, it provides a framework for nurses to use when caring for patients. Second, it helps nurses to classify and group nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. Finally, it helps to guide nursing research.
The behavioral care model was the outgrowth of years of reflection and study by Dorothy Johnson. In her writings and teachings, the main motivation validates that nursing is a unique and separate science from medicine (Parker & Smith, 2010). She focused on the individual rather than on the disease process in this.
Nursing is the scientific study of human beings and their environment and Johnson’s model reflects this (Alligood & Tomey, 2010). Nursing theories are important to the profession because they provide a framework for care. Nursing theory guides research and practice by providing a means of understanding, explaining and predicting phenomena (Alligood & Tomey, 2010).
Johnson’s behavioral system model is based on eight concepts: stimulus, perception, response, reinforcement, drive-reduction needs, set point, stressors and resources (Parker&Smith, 2010). The model can be used to explain how humans interact with their environment (Alligood & Tomey, 2010). It also can be applied to understand why people respond to stimuli in the way that they do. Nursing interventions can be planned based on an understanding of the model (Alligood & Tomey, 2010).
The aim of this essay is to present, and describe the behavioral model, as well as its creator, and give a short critical evaluation using Meleis’ (2004) assessment criteria. I’ll also go through the behavioral system model in detail because it will affect my practice area and the obstacles it will create.
Dorothy Johnson’s Nursing Theory
The behavioral system model is a Nursing theory that was developed by Dorothy Johnson in 1958. It is also sometimes referred to as the “stimulus-response” theory (Meleis, 2004). The theory is based on the premise that human beings are born with certain innate behaviors that are triggered by environmental stimuli. These behaviors are then reinforced or punished, depending on the consequences of the behavior. This reinforcement or punishment will then influence future behavior.
The main concepts of this theory are:
– Stimulus: any type of information that comes into the individual’s environment and has the potential to trigger a response
– Response: any type of reaction or behavior that is elicited by a stimulus
– Reinforcement: any type of consequence that strengthens or weakens a response
– Punishment: any type of consequence that suppresses a response
One of the strengths of this theory is its focus on observable behavior. This makes it easier to measure and evaluate the effects of Nursing interventions. Another strength is that it can be used to explain both individual and group behavior. A weakness of the theory is that it does not take into account internal factors, such as thoughts and emotions, that can influence behavior.
The behavioral system model would be applicable to my practice area in a number of ways. For example, if I am working with a patient who has difficulty taking their medication, I could use this theory to help me understand why they are having this difficulty and what I can do to change their behavior.
There are a few challenges that come with using this theory in my practice area. One challenge is that some of the concepts, such as reinforcement and punishment, can be controversial. Another challenge is that the theory does not always account for the complexities of human behavior. For example, a patient may have multiple reasons for not taking their medication, and it may not be possible to change their behavior with Nursing interventions alone.
Despite these challenges, I believe that the behavioral system model is a useful tool for understanding and predicting human behavior. It can be used to develop Nursing interventions that are based on a scientific understanding of how humans learn and behave.
Tourville and Ingalls (2003) state that the beginnings of Dr Johnson’s behavioral systems model (BSM) are based on her pediatric background, intercultural theories of child development, and Talcott Parson’s sociology theories. Many sources supported her beliefs in BSM; for example, she believed nursing was about more than just physical caretaking but rather concerned with meeting all needs of the individual as a whole system.
The systems model is a Nursing Process that includes input, output, and feedback. Johnson believed these three Nursing Processes were key to providing quality nursing care (Alligood & Tomey, 2010).
The Johnson Behavioral System Model comprises of six interacting subsystems:
– affectional (Johnson, 2006).
Each of these systems has its own purpose and function within the whole system. For example, the perceptual system takes in stimuli from the environment and translates it into information that can be processed by the other systems. The motor system then responds to this information with physical actions. The figural-image system is responsible for creating mental images based on the information received. The symbolic system is responsible for language and communication. The attentional system focuses the individual’s attention on certain stimuli. Finally, the affectional system regulates the individual’s emotions.
The Johnson Behavioral System Model can be used to explain human behavior at different levels of complexity, from simple reflexes to complex social interactions. For example, it can be used to explain why a person blinks when a bright light is shone in their eyes (simple reflex), or why a person becomes angry when they are treated unfairly (complex social interaction).
The Johnson Behavioral System Model can also be used to understand and predict human behavior in various situations. For example, it can be used to understand why a person may become agitated when they are in a hospital setting. The model can also be used to predict how a person may behave in a particular situation, such as how a person may react to a change in their routine.
The Johnson Behavioral System Model is a useful tool for nurses as it can help them to understand and predict human behavior. It can also help nurses to provide individualized care to their patients.