To more effectively explore the topic regarding development paradigms, a subset of literature has been selected based on its relevance to the topic. This review will present the status quo of works on this topic and is arranged based on the chronological development of researches and literature on this topic.
In the work of Newton and Van Deth (2012), the process of development goes through phases. First, policy makers are posed with a wide variety of possible policy instruments to achieve the end goal of the state, being a welfare state. Possible policy instruments are tools used by the government in order to achieve the desired outcome. These instruments may include taxing of good and services, imposing regulations, passing new laws, etc. Second, actions by the government are evaluated and are given feedback by several affected actors inside and outside the state. Political actions are evaluated in two ways, namely: efficiency and effectiveness. On the one hand, efficiency is using the minimum amount of resources possible and achieving the maximum effect. On the other hand, effectiveness is achieving what was intended and being able to satisfy the criteria that were set. Last is achieving the predicament of a welfare state. With that, a welfare state should, specifically reduce poverty, promote equality of opportunity, promote individual autonomy, promote social stability, and promote social integration.
According to Bellu? (2011), development can be equated to any type of improvement. This can occuronn two levels, namely micro and macro. Development can be qualified or evaluated in different ways. One is through economic development. Economic development is correlated with the idea of economic growth. This means that economic development can be measurednominally inn terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Another illustration of development is territorial development. This type of development is qualified by the interconnectedness of the rural and urban areas and quantified by the linkage by transportation and information systems. Last is through sustainable development. This is where the demands of the status quoares met without damaging the demands of the future generation. It includes abstract and concrete aspects of society, such as culture and national memorabilia. However, the paper highlights the relationship of these development quantifiers. A development of one quantifier may be harmful to another – all developmental actions face certain trade-offs and conflicts.
Poverty is the most defining characteristic of third world or developing countries. It is defined as a living condition that a population or groups of people experienc, when they lack the means to provide for themselves due to either external or personal circumstances. This is the problem development seeks to alleviate. In rural areas, underdevelopment is prevalent due to poor access to job opportunities, education, health and other basic necessities. The inequality that occurs between different socio-economic classes, specifically between natives of urban and rural areas, is reflective of the state; thus, prompting legal institutions to create respective development policies. The discrepancies were not limited to location, but as well as class, gender and even race which were not supported by the previous national policies. Moreover, in thetwentieth-centuryy post mainstream liberalism, conceptions of development have evolved into a set of standards or frameworks, also known as paradigms, which conclusively referenced equity, participation, and sustainability as the goals of development. States have then become pro-poor growth, which advocates for economic expansion, in hopes of supporting minorities or individuals in the lower income stratum (Thomas, 2014).
According to Trebilcock and Prado (2014), the essential constituents of development are separated into three sections of theories; economic, cultural, and geographic. All the following theories have contrasting expositions, however, concur that institutions serve a great role in promoting development. In their book “Advanced Institution to Law and Development”, there are five apparent economic theories.
The first, the linear theory, elucidates that new capital formation is imperative for developing countries to progress. Whereas in the structural change theory, it focuses on the implementation of a service economy, heavily dependent on manufacturing as its central income. It rejects the idea of traditional subsistence agriculture in domestic economic structures and instead advises developing countries to use farm mechanization as a means to increase labor productivity. In short, the structural change theory suggests that economic development is controlled by industrialization and increasing investments on infrastructure. Conversely, in the dependency theory, the state of domestic economic development is determined by historical influences of colonial or economic power. Moreover, the theory cites foreign direct investment as a means of creating a broader economy in developing countries. However, the theory does acknowledge that financial dependence on developed countries could easily lead to corruption which will ultimately hinder indigenous manufacturing sectors from progressing. The next theory, neoliberal, advocates the establishment of a free-market. Free-market, as detailed in the text, would implicate efficient allocation of economic resources and pricing signals, that would include; fiscal discipline, tax reforms, liberalization, open trade, market degradation, and fostering competition within sectors. It rejects the former theory’s concept on public expenditures and endorses alternately a laissez-faire system. Similar to the structural change theory, the endogenous theory encourages that technological innovation and human capital chiefly impacts domestic growth. This theory cites resources, and education as the determinant for an industrial advantage.
Following the economic theories, the book presents the cultural theories of development. It emphasizes the role of culture in institutional stability and change, as institutions encourage political tyranny and social discrimination. By mimicking the culture of developed societies, developing countries could finally move on from progress-resistant outlooks that impede the progression of rationalism and democracy and the goals of cultural freedom.
The last and final section, the geographic theories of development specify three factors; climate, location, and natural endowments. As stated in the book, most tropical climates have a negative impact on economic productivity due to tenuous tropical soils and the rampancy of crop pests and parasites. Therefore, tropical countries are more likely to experience setbacks in agriculture outputs, which is crucial to the gross domestic product of developing countries. The location also plays a huge role in development; as far as landlocked countries are concerned, their location limits the monetary opportunities for trade and other economic benefits international and interregional commercial activities could provide. Furthermore, the abundance of natural resources, ironically, could have some negative implications for the country. It risks further odds of civil conflict ensued by disputed resource ownership and higher levels of inequality of wealth, human capital, and political power. In spite of the aforementioned theories, economic geography dismisses that physical geographic traits are responsible for underdevelopment, rather it focuses on the regional inequality and how favorable economic development varies for different countries depending on factors such as; density (population), distance (region), and division (economic integration). The 2009 World Development Report (as cited in Trebilcock & Prado, 2014) states that development transpires by increasing rates of human capital, shortening the distances between regions and centers of economic activities, and finally, lessen the impermeability of trade borders. Likewise, the Jeffrey Sachs theory lists threeimpendingg features in development, citing; transportation costs, diseases, and poor soil fertility. This highlights the role of geographical location greatly in economic reforms. On the other hand, institutionalists place less emphasis on geography, in terms of underdevelopment, citing poor institutions as the problem. Despite the divergent claims, most researchers agree that geography has an indirect, nevertheless strong, role in a country’s development, as well as the requisite need for strong institutions in creating effective government policies. Peter Drahos (2014) further elaborates on these institutions, focusing on indigenous people and the disadvantages they face due to extractive property rights. This explicates the different notions of a ‘developed’ state between indigenous people and normative understanding. For indigenous people, especially in developing countries, their indigence proves to be difficult for them to survive as a state, thus their reliance on intellectual property. Correspondingly, indigenous knowledgepresentst a notable role in the networking scene, separating them from traditional conventions in cross-bordercommerces. Notwithstanding the opinions on the extractive nature of the state’s property order, it can be inferred that human capital, in this cas,e intellectual property, augments developing countries into better socio-economic positions.
The general consensus of Trebilcock and Prado’s theories explain the importance of legal institutions and government bodies in achieving development goals. By changing the quality of state intervention, it will then have a positive cumulative effect on the various successions of economic, cultural, and geographic facets in developing countries. In the book, “Redefining Sovereignty in International Economic Law” (2008), Qureshi also explains the interplay between sovereignty and development, in the context ofEurocentricc and third world perspectives. The constructive and expansive natureofn the two featuresallowsw developing countries to protectitselfs against the encroachment of state competence. Additionally, historical factorshaves left developing countries insecure about its legislators thus, sovereignty must preserve its offensive capabilities as it replicates its own paradigm through further development actions.
With the continuous efforts of developing countries to seek aid, researches and traditions of development studies soon began to propagate. Development studies began as an interdisciplinary course stemming from the various discourses of development theories over the years. The social science was divided into three dimensions: international development which focuses on assisting third world countries, national development which focuses on nation-building and the role of public institutions in domestic well-being, and lastly, global development which focuses on interdependence, integration, and globalization of different countries. Combined with these three dimensions or outlooks, development studies has experienced a paradigm shift, that no longer exclusively considers economic matters as the sole determinant. The study now recognizes other variables and deprivations that may impede development outcomes, such as socio-economic, political, and sovereign problems. From poverty eradication, the course has become broader in their goals, especially in terms of social progress, human capital, cultural reforms, and political empowerment. Moreover, the course has proved to be a supplement to governments, NGOs, and other international organizations to address macro and micro level problems such as poverty, sustainable development, industrialization, and political ecology to name a few. The tradition may not be as popular in developed countries, but, job opportunities and schooling in this field have now become increasingly open to help developing countries in Africa and Asia (Currie-Alder, 2016).
Development in the Philippine Context
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistical measure of the three development indicators of a country: average life expectancy, educational attainment, and gross national per capita income. In UNDP’s latest Human Development Report (2016), the Philippines ranked 116th against 188 countries in total, with the index rate of 0.682. The life expectancy of Filipinos is approximately 68.3 years, the expected years of schooling is a short number of 11.7 years, and the gross national capita income is 8,395 PPP dollars. Overall, the Philippines is ranked relatively higher than countries in the medium regio, but is considered below average compared to countries in East Asia and the Pacific. Despite the Philippines’ increasing index rate, the Philippines, in juxtaposition to other countries, develops in a rather slow, albeit consistent rate. However, after the United Nations introduced the Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) in 2010, inequalities or loss in human development now can be discounted from the scores. The Philippines without the IHDI is ranked 0.682, but with the discounted score, the Philippines falls in the below average region with an index rate of 0.556. Throughout the years, the Philippines has progressively increased their score by 16.3%, but with the IHDI now considered, the Philippines has lost an overall score of 18.4%.
Education is also a major factor in a development of a country. It provides the country with a pool of graduates with specific lines of expertise to fill up roles in society. In the Philippines however, unemployment remains to be a perennial problem. According to Hagos and Dejarme (2008), the Philippine curriculum should be adjusted to meet the needs of the society, especially to support the surplus of human resources the country possesses. The researchers highlighted seven changes the Philippine curriculum should undergo. First, the curriculum should be computer-based to measure up to the advancement of technologies – to produce graduates capable of utilizing computer softwares in work environments. Second is the incorporating of environmental knowledge into selected programs. This is mainly to raise awareness about the risks of human activities to the environment and to help prepare students to contribute in an interdependent global village. Third is a research-oriented curriculum. Research establishes cause and effect relationships, creates predictions, and investigates outcomes of different variables. Fourth is that a technology-enriched curriculum will enable studenst to adapt in the 21st century as almost all institutions around the globe are leaning towards the use of technological equipment. Fifth is culminating a just and humane society through integrating a value-laden curriculum. For the sixth change, it is a community-involved curriculum. It creates a link between the lessons learned in school and the problems faced by a community. Lastly, is an industry-linked curriculum. This allows educational institutions to produce graduates who are well oriented in different working environments.
Based on the findings of the Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (2017), an estimated 9% or 39.2 million Filipinos aged 6 to 24 are no longer attending school or have not yet finished a post-secondary degree. There was a higher rate of females out of school, with the percentage rate of 63.3, and the recurrent reason was due to marriage or family matters which comprised of 37% of the out of school youths and 57% of females total. Together with other reasons, 24.7% dropped out of school due to lack of personal interest for both sexes, where 43.8% of males agreed; other considerable factors include financial concerns and employment as their grounds. Approximately half of the families of out of school youths fall in the bottom 30% based on their per capita income. In fac,t by 2012, the number of migrating Filipino students have doubled since 2001. Between the years 2006 to 2012, 11,210 tertiary-level students have enrolled abroad. Furthermore, 27% of them decided to pursue their studies in the US, 21% of them in Australia, 12% of the students in the UK, and a considerable amount as well in Canada.
By 2010, the Philippines has exceeded 24 million enrollees in their primary and secondary programs. In spite of those numbers, only 23% of Filipino high school graduates decide to pursue tertiary-level or higher education. However, the British Council did estimate that the Philippines would have an increase of tertiary-level graduates by 2020. Now that the Philippine’s economic growth rate is at 6.6%, there is also a growing pressure for Filipinos to meet international standards in order to do professional work. The increasing economy rates were not beneficial for Filipino students inasmuch as it caused the high levels of youth unemployment. Not to mention that overall unemployment rates are increasing by 7.5% since 2014. With the current income rates due to sporadic economic growth and the competitiveness of job opportunities for Filipino undergraduates, many families of Filipino students can now afford to enroll their children overseas, hence, heightening the possibility for more outbound students in the following years. In more recent years, the Philippines has begun focusing on the implementation of the K-12 system to expand the advantages of Filipino students in the competitive global market. Thecurriculum hass not shown any significant impacts on the outbound mobility of Filipino student;, howeve,r therehaves been reports that most students in the Philippines emigrated there only on special study permits (SSP). Majority of the students are in the Philippines for short courses such as English language training or secondary level schooling, as opposed to higher or tertiary-level training (ICEF Monitor, 2014). In another survey by the Philippine Statistics Authority (2017), the estimated number of overseas Filipino workers (OFW) is at 2.3 million, during the period between April to September 2017. The largest proportion of OFWs, 21.7%, comprised of age groups between 30 to 34 years old, with women comparatively younger at ages 25 to 29. In addition, Saudi Arabia was reported to be the hotspot of job opportunities for Filipino OFWs, comprising of 25.4%of Filipinos, followed bythe United Arab Emirates with 15.3%. Additionally, the total cash remittance of OFWs during the same period was reported to be 205.2 billion pesos.