Nursing theory is the framework that provide the understanding that some of the nursing world by grouping the theory into different categories. Nursing theories have a lot of impact on today’s nursing; they improve the nursing care, learning and research. In this thesis, I am comparing and contrasting the Watson’s theory of human care and Orem theory. Watson’s theory and Orem’s theory known as grand theories; they are formed of concepts, and perceptions representing universal and multifaceted phenomenon (George, 1990). They connote the most theoretical level of advancement and address the broad marvels of concern. These theories don’t manual for the development of particular nursing intercessions, yet they give a general structure to building wide, dynamic observations. Different cases of terrific theories are; humanistic model, Roy’s Adaptation Model for Nursing, Parse’s Human getting to be Theory, and Erickson’s Modeling and Role.
Watson theory focuses on holistic care and relationship between patients and caregivers. Watson concentrated on caring of human being. The theory emphasis on caring as the moral and ethical ideal of nursing. Watson argues that human caring preserves human dignity, integrity, and relationships, this advance theory patient care by recognizing and appreciating the patient as a human being that has; mind, soul, and body. Watsons also argues that trust and a special bond between a nurse, and a patient created when the two mingle face to face (Faetibold, & Waton, 1995). Watson’s theory diverts attention from sickness, assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation and focus on human caring, spiritual and healing. Watson believes in philosophy and science of care was divided into 4 major concepts: environment, health, human being and nursing.
Orem’s theory divided in three theories, theory of self-care, theory of self-care deficit and theory of nursing process. Orem explained in the first theory that every human being has the capacity to maintain and adjust to a personal health, and well-being all through life (Orem, & Taylor, 1986). The second theory; theory of self-care deficit, explains that every human being has a need for survival and has the capability of attaining it for health and life. Self-care deficit results when individual are unable to attain survival needs. The third theory, Orem argues that an action plan that connects self-care theory and self-care deficit need develop. Orem explained various five ways in which nurses can help their patients to enrich self-care, teaching, supporting and encouraging personal development.
An arrangement on how the two theories are used and actualized
The planned used to utilize and actualize the theories in nursing translates as the same logical approach utilized by nurses to guarantee the quality patient care. This arrangement breaks into five separate advances:
Stage 1: assessment
This is the first phase or stage where a nurse gathers information about the patient psychological, physical, sociological and spiritual information. This stage also involve observation, signs and symptoms the patient displace. It’s the collection of raw data from the patient
Stage 2: diagnosis
This is the stage where nurse use critical thing and nursing judgement about patient actual and potential health problems. It itemize exact patients health problems and other risks that associated with the current health problem that can later develop as a result of current health problem.
Stage 3: Planning
This is the stage where nurse and patient work together to select the best planning action and course of healing
Stage 4: Implementation
This is the action stage, where planning is been executed. Each patient has individualized planning of care and individualized implementation. The nurse observe the patient for signs and symptoms of improvement after implementation of plan while performing nursing role in educating, instructing counseling advocating and following up with the patient about the care
Stage 5: Evaluation
Patient condition is evaluated to know if the condition is improving or getting worse. Any planning that is met is terminated and anyone that is not met is recycle back to the nursing process.
Similarities between Orem’s theory and Watson’s theory
Both the Orem’s theory and Watson s theory are similar in that , both of them focus on the patients care, Watsons theory proposes that human caring is the moral ideal of nursing, nurses participate in the individualize care of the patient in holistic manner, to enhance, protect and preserve humanity. The nurse help patient in finding a balance and peace in the mist of ailment, and pain. Orem’s theory deal with supporting education system, the patients require assistance and the care of the nurses (Orem, & Taylor, 1986). Orem categorizes care as supportive- educative system, whereby nurses help the patients in decision making, and take necessary action in meeting the self-care requirements to meet the patient’s daily needs.
Nurses roles is to provide support and education needed to help the patient reach their optimum goal and capabilities to carry out self-care that will lead the patient to self-control, self-knowledge and sell healing. Both theories argue that nurses performed the care while patient is the receiver of the care. The two theories include holistic and spiritual nursing. The two theories focus on holistic healing of the whole person rather than curing diseases. Holistic nursing of the two theories addresses the connection between the mind, the spirit and the body (Baldacchino, & Draper, 2001). Orem’s and Watsons explained that the three combine to create the person. To effectively heal the person, nurses must focus on these three aspects and how these three aspects will affect the totality of the person health and how quickly the person will respond to treatment. Spiritual nursing focus mainly on hope, religion and faith as the distinct parts of what define human communities, and provide room for individual to evaluate their experiences.
There are uncertain in the Watson theory, in that, he used certain terms to describe caring, such as the soul, the mind and the spirit which are vague and biased to the individual and not practicable. The perception in which Orem discussed her theory was not well defined and open to bias.
Differences between Orem’s theory and Watson’s theory
Watson theory cannot be measured and quantify, Watson said that the nurse duty is to encourage feelings of faith and hope to the patient. This make the theory immeasurable, abstract and biased (Orem, & Taylor, 1986) while on the Orem’s, the theory is measurable. It’s a research which used quantitative and qualitative research methods. Orem’s theory explained the foundation for many proofs based practices which include nursing process. Watson’s theory of caring is complex, many of the ideas involved, propose theoretical questions about the definitions of caring, morality, growing, healing, spirituality, and what is considered human (Faetibold, Michels, & Waton,1996). Watson’s theory offers a structure that grasps science, art, spiritual and humanities, which are one-sided and dynamic recognitions. While, Orem’s hypothesis; is composed and very much organized into three classes; self-mind, self-mind shortfall, and the way toward nursing, this hypothesis is basic and functional.