Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as “attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking” (Wikipedia, 2016). It focuses on how people process information and how this affects their behavior.
Cognitive psychology has its roots in philosophy and physiology. Early philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle were interested in the nature of the mind and how it worked. This interest was continued by philosophers such as René Descartes and John Locke. Meanwhile, physiologists such as Hermann von Helmholtz and Wilhelm Wundt were investigating the way that the body worked. These two streams of thought – philosophy and physiology – came together to form cognitive psychology.
Cognitive psychology has been influenced by a number of other disciplines, including computer science, linguistics, and anthropology. This has led to the development of different schools of thought within cognitive psychology, such as information processing, gestalt, and connections.
Cognitive psychologists use a variety of research methods to study the mind. These include experiments, case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation.
Cognitive psychology is a relatively new field which is constantly evolving. New theories and ideas are being developed all the time. As our understanding of the mind increases, so too does our ability to help people with psychological problems.
The study of human cognition is called cognitive psychology, and it is a contemporary approach to the study of [humans’ processes for comprehending the world, such as memory, learning, syntax comprehension, problem solving, and invention]. Cognitive psychology has been influenced by studies in linguistics, computer science, and—naturally enough—previous philosophy and psychological research.
In recent years, cognitive psychology has also been influenced by findings from neuroscience. Cognitive psychology is interested in all aspects of mental life, including perception, attention, language, memory, thinking, problem-solving, decision-making, and learning. Much of cognitive psychology is concerned with how people process information from the world around them. For example, studies might examine how people remember faces or the order of words in a sentence. Other studies focus on more complex issues such as decision-making or problem-solving.
One of the goals of cognitive psychology is to develop models of how people process information that can be tested using scientific methods. These models can range from relatively simple (e.g., a model of how people remember lists of words) to quite complex (e.g., a model of how people make decisions).
Cognitive psychology has had a significant impact on our understanding of human thought and behavior. The insights gained from cognitive psychological research have led to improvements in educational practices, the design of intelligent computer systems, and the treatment of disorders such as dementia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).]
Cognitive psychology is a relatively new approach to the study of mind and human behavior. It has been influenced by studies in linguistics, computer science, and philosophy, among other fields.
The term “cognitive psychology” emerged from the study of higher mental processes in cognitive psychology. According to Lichtenstein, one of the attractive features of cognitive psychology is that it reflects common sense psychology accurately. If a student is asked to define psychology without taking an introductory course on the topic, they may respond, “Psychology is the study of the mind.”
In contrast to some of the other approaches to psychology, the cognitive approach is pretty heavily grounded in scientific research. The cognitive approach to psychology is interested in studying mental processes such as perception, memory, attention, language, problem solving, and decision making.
Cognitive psychology has its roots in Gestalt psychology and the work of German psychologist Wolfgang Kohler. Gestalt psychology emphasized our tendency to perceive objects as whole units rather than as a collection of parts. One of the main ideas behind Gestalt psychology is that we are more than the sum of our parts when it comes to perception and cognition. The cognitive approach has also been influenced by the work of British researchers Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch who proposed a model of working memory in 1974. Working memory is important for many cognitive tasks such as problem-solving, decision making, and language comprehension.
The cognitive approach has been successful in explaining a number of phenomena that were previously unexplained by other approaches to psychology. For example, the Stroop effect is a phenomenon in which it takes longer to name the color of a word if the word itself is a color name (e.g., blue) than if the word is not a color name (e.g., house). The cognitive approach was able to explain this phenomenon by positing that there are separate systems for processing color information and word information and that these two systems come into conflict with each other when we try to name the color of a colored word.
Attention is another topic that has been studied extensively within the cognitive approach. The early work of British psychologist D.E. Broadbent showed that we cannot pay attention to everything at once and that we have a limited capacity for attention. More recent work on attention has focused on the role of attention in selective listening and how we are able to focus our attention on certain stimuli while ignoring others.
Cognitive psychology has also been successful in explaining a number of disorders such as dyslexia, ADHD, and OCD. Dyslexia is a reading disorder that is characterized by difficulty with phonemic awareness, phonology, and word decoding. The cognitive approach has been able to explain dyslexia by positing that it is caused by a deficit in the phonological processing system. ADHD is a disorder that is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
The cognitive approach has been able to explain ADHD by positing that it is caused by a deficit in executive functioning. OCD is a disorder that is characterized by repetitive and intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions). The cognitive approach has been able to explain OCD by positing that it is caused by a malfunctioning of the brain’s normal filtering system.
Cognitive psychology has also led to the development of new techniques for studying the mind and brain. One of the most popular techniques used in cognitive neuroscience is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). FMRI allows researchers to see which areas of the brain are active during different cognitive tasks. This technique has been used to study a variety of topics such as attention, decision making, and language processing.
The cognitive approach is one of the most widely studied approaches in psychology and has contributed greatly to our understanding of the mind and brain.