Assimilation of borrowed words in language is almost a partial or general form of phonetic, graphical or morphological standards affecting the semantic structure.
The process of assimilation of borrowed words changes in shape, morphological structure, grammatical characteristics, meaning and usage, here we also mention three types of assimilation that are: phonetic, grammatical and lexical assimilation of borrowed words.
Phonetic assimilation is a pronounced and pronounced change, and some sounds known to be “different” from English were more suited to the phonetic assimilation.
One of the longest periods of the assimilated books was from the French language and was made in conjunction with communication, ballet, constant combinations, psychology of Greek descent who changed the language by not returning the native language of the English language.
Other words borrowed from French and Latin, the emphasis was shifted to the first syllable eg: honor, the reason began to be emphasized as a father, brother.
In grammatical assimilation, the borrowed words lost their grammatical categories by changing the inclusion of other categories like the grammatical paradigms by analogy with other English words, such as: the Russian borrowing ‘sputnik’ acquired the paradigm sputnik, sputnik’s, sputniks, sputniks` ,borrower sputnik won the sputnik paradigm, thus losing the contingencies she had in language Russian.
Assimilation of reading means words taken from other languages where its semantic structure is subject to many changes.
Polysemantic terms with their double meaning represent a diminution of meanings where only their meaning is endorsed in the end for example, we have the word “cargo”, which in Spain has many versions of meanings, returns to just one sense ” the goods carried in a ship “. Another example the French language restricts by not using it at all, the word “move” in Modern English has different meanings, for example ” propose “, ” change one’s flat” , “mix with people”
There are also some other changes in the semantic structure of borrowed words where the meanings of some words are more general, the others more specialized, etc. For example, the word ‘umbrella’ is borrowed in the sense of ‘sunshade’ or ‘parasole’ (which originates from the Latin language meaning ombrella- ombra-shade).
In English, there are also some borrowed words that are actually known to foreigners such as decollete, Zeitgeist, graff, and many others such as (street, city, master, river) that have become so (authentic) that many difficult to distinguish from the mother tongue of English. Words that are not assimilated differ from the assimilated ones in spelling, semantic structure, frequency, and field of use, but there is still no limited line between the two groups.
There are no criteria in this respect that indicate the process for determining the degree of assimilation. What is known is that the degree of assimilation has a great influence on how long the use of that word lasts in the other language, the importance it has, the frequency of how often it was used, and how it had come to the assimilation process (in terms of borrowing only with the mouth that had more influence, or as those in “written” form that did not have the same effect of assimilation.)
According to the degree of assimilation, three groups of borrowed words are identified:
- Fully assimilated loans,
- Partly Assimilated Loans and
- Borrows or barbarisms The third group is not globally known, arguing that barbarisms occur only in speeches and do not make any speeches in the language.
- Completely assimilated finds are used even earlier in all layers of borrowed words:
- The first layer of words borrowed from Latin for example (cheese, street, wall and wings),
- Scandinavian loans eg ( fellow, gate, to call, to die, to take, to want, happy, ill, low, wrong); c)Early French lending (table, chair, finish, matter, dress, large, easy, common, to allow, to carry, to cry , to consider).
In general, the number of words that are entirely assimilated is far greater than that of words that are partially assimilated. They make up all morphological, phonetic and orthographic standards.
- Borrowed words that are not phonetically assimilated: eg. (machine , cartoon, police) emphasize the ultimate syllable ( bourgeois, mélange (mijlange)) containing combinations of sounds that are not standard for English and are not native language ([wa:] nasalazed [a]),
- Borrowed words that are not graphically assimilated. This group of words is very large and varied, which includes words from french, where not uttered the words at the end of the word (ballet, bufft, corps.)
- Borrowed words that are not grammatically assimilated from the mix of Latin and Greek languages by not altering the original forms of words, for example:(crisis-crises, formula-formulae, phenomenon-phenomena)
- The borrowed words that are not assimilated semantically because they reject the particular objects and notions of the country from which they come: (sombrero, shah, sheik, rickchaw, sherbet.)
- Italian: ‘ciao’ (good-bye)
- French: ‘affiche’ (placard, carte blanche) ,(‘freedom of action’), ‘faux pas’ (‘false step’).