Wound burn is described as a damage to the skin or other natural tissue that is caused by heat or radiation, radioactivity, power, rubbing or contact with chemicals. It is considered as a global public health problem because every year the approximate number of deaths caused and generated by burns has a total of 180,000 (World Health Organization [WHO], 2018). According to Elloso and Cruz (2017) the Philippines has a total of 4 burn centers that treats about 300 to 400 burn cases a year. Thus, there is a need of efficient, alternative and easy access treatment for wound burns. Determining the properties of medicinal plants that is utilized in the treatment of wound burns can be developed into a more efficient wound burn drug that can help the future Filipino patients regarding wound burn treatment.
In the study of Obiama, Chikanka, & Dumo (2017), it is mentioned that there are various medicinal plants that can help to treat wound burn. One of them is Bryophyllum pinnatum or also known as Katakataka in the Philippines, it is a herbal plant that came from Crassulcea family that is frequently used to treat or heal urinary stones, hypertension, cold, abscesses, asthma, insect bite, skin disorders and other illnesses. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) may be utilize in so many ways especially the leaves of the said plant. Its leaves contain astringent, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, wound healing and many more properties. It can be used to treat wound burn, sprains, eczema, infection, carbuncle and erysipelas by pounding fresh material to be applied as poultice for a variety of conditions (Stuart, 2017).
Different extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) are being applied to treat different illnesses especially wound burn. However, most of the previous researchers who performed the experiment executed it with the help of another compound. A previous study entitled “Anti- inflammatory effects of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. ) Oken ethanol extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation” investigated the anti- inflammatory capabilities in relation to acute and chronic cutaneous treatment. Nonetheless, the study did not discuss or mentioned anything about wound healing activities. They also did not follow the procedure that they made which is to utilize the extracts of the Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) plant alone, their experiment was supported by other components as mentioned above.
The objective of the study is to determine if the wound healing capabilities of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) can serve as a treatment for wound burns. The study aims to identify the antioxidant properties of different extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) using (On what method would DOST suggest). It also aims to prove that Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) alone has antioxidant and wound healing capabilities. This study will help the future researchers in having additional knowledge about the antibacterial components of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka). The researchers will also focus on modifying the previous studies which concerns the ailment together with the same plant utilized. In addition, this study will have a big impact in providing new concepts and ideas with regards to manipulating Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) which can be used to treat or lessen the number of people that suffers under some particular disease, ailment and illnesses. This research is mostly significant for those who have wound burns, as the result from the observation of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) can be used as an alternative treatment. The researchers mainly focused on the usage of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) and confirming the efficacy of its antioxidant and wound healing properties. This study also concerns the validity of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) extracts in curing wound burns without the help of other constituents. Moreover, the study’s only limitation is that the testing will be done on specific areas only such as the antioxidants and wound healing properties together with the extracts of Bryophyllum Pinnatum (Katakataka) alone, this is because of the limited time given and financial sources. The study would most likely tackle about the concern about wound burn and capabilities of the plant.
Review of related literature
The utilization of medical plant is growing around the world because of the increasing toxicity and allergic manifestation of engineered and synthetic drugs. The plant, Bryophyllum pinnatum (Crassulaceae) or Kalanchoe pinnata which is well known in the Philippines as Katakataka, is considered as a miracle plant that has been accepted as a herbal remedy in almost all parts of the world (Lunkad,Angrawal & Kothawade, 2016). It is defined as a broadly disseminated perennial medicinal herb (Aprioku and Igbe, 2017). On the other hand, Stuart (2017) characterized it as an erect, smooth and juicy herb that is commonly found in tropical parts. For example, the countries of India, Africa, Madagascar and Philippines wherein they mostly use it as a medicine to cure illnesses (Lunkad,Angrawal & Kothawade, 2016). Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) is also described as a plant with elliptic leaflets that usually grows up to 10cm long with thick succulent and scalloped margins (Stuart, 2017). Moreover, Jason (2017) also described that Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) is a fast- growing plant that grows simply by its leaves and is easy to take care because it does not require to be watered daily. Based on Balinado, and Chan (2017) the documentation of the ethnomedicinal knowledge and practices in a local district is executed to help dictate the importance and variety of traditional medicinal uses. The study has about seventy-six (76) medicinal plants that belongs to almost 40 families represented mostly by Lamiaceae and most of these plants are cultured herbs and shrubs which leaves were usually collected for their useful extracts. There are about twelve categories of several ailments that follows the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), and these ailments are reported to be cured by the Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka plant). With the use of quantitative analyses, the researchers found out the most preferred species for use in different ailment categories, Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka plant) happens to be one of them.
The study also showed the importance of the wide variety of plant species on the knowledge and practices of the citizens. These plants like the Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka plant) play a big role in sustaining the local health care of the place despite of all the modernization that is happening in today’s world. The study claimed that medicinal plants could be further analyzed for an accuracy of its safety and efficacy for local and future scientific and pharmaceutical applications. Based on the research of Lunkad, Angrawal and Kothawade (2016) the Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) is commonly known for its wound healing properties and has been used for generations in the field of medicine. In other parts of the world, Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) is also called the Life Plant or The Miracle leaf because the entire plant can be used as herbal medicine. Studies showed that Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) has the ability to cure diarrhea, headache, and asthma; it is proven to treat wounds, bruises, or burns just by applying the extract of the plant (Jason, 2017). Additionally, Aprioku and Igbe (2017) claimed that Bryophyllum pinnatum has wound healing properties and could treat conditions of microbial infection, skin ulcers, rheumatism, heartburn and other diseases. These benefits can be acquired from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka) for it is known to have antibacterial, antiseptic, disinfectant and many more properties (Stuart, 2017).
According to the Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (n. d. ), an antimicrobial is a specialist that restrains the development of microorganisms. The microbial specialist might be a chemical substance and physical operators. These operators meddle with the development and propagation of causative living beings like bacteria, fungi, parasites, infection and so forth. A microorganism or organism is a living life form which are too little to be seen using the bare eye yet noticeable under a magnifying instrument. Microbiology is the investigation of microorganisms. Microscopic organisms like bacteria, fungi, archaea or protists are incorporated under microorganisms. Antibacterial is an operator that meddles with the development and propagation of microbes. These agents eradicate or counteract microscopic organisms by battling against bacterial compounds. Warmth synthetic compounds, for example, chlorine, and every anti-microbial medication have antibacterial properties. Antimicrobial Drugs are utilized to treat a microbial disease. Antimicrobial medicines can be gathered by the microorganisms they act fundamentally against. Models anti-infection agents, antifungals, antiprotozoal, and antiviral medications.
In addition, according to Medicine Net. (n. d. ). Antimicrobial is a general term given to substances including drugs that execute or moderate the development of organisms. Microbe is an aggregate name given to microorganisms like the Staphylococcus aureus, which causes some staphinfections, infections (e. g. , flu, which causes this season’s flu virus), fungi (e. g. , Candida albicans, which causes yeast contaminations), and parasites (e. g. , Plasmodium falciparum, which causes jungle fever or malaria). Models of antimicrobial specialists are Tetracycline (one anti-infection used to treat urinary tract diseases), Oseltamivir or Tamiflu (antiviral that treats influenza), and Terbinafine or Lamisil (antifungal that can cure athlete’s foot). An anti-infection or antibiotic is a medication intended to execute or moderate the development of microorganisms and a few organisms. Antibiotics are regularly used to battle bacterial diseases, however can’t battle against contaminations caused by infections. Antibacterial is the term given to substances that execute or moderate the development of microscopic organisms while treating human and ecological surfaces. These incorporate substances that guide in legitimate cleanliness. According to Obiama, Chikanka, and Dumo, (2017) the demand for drugs that possess antimicrobial properties have been increasing, this has led to the idea of using medicinal plants with the goal of examining its antibacterial properties which can be an advantage since most medicinal plants are not expensive and can be easily found. Plants like Morringa oliefera, Jatropha curcas, Cacrica papaya, Psidium guajava, Magnifica indica and Bryophyllum pinnatum have been showed to contain antimicrobial properties.
Since, Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka plant) is confirmed to bear antibacterial qualities, it became a candidate for alternative medicines that can be used for curing numerous infections. To test the antimicrobial properties of the Bryophyllum pinnatum, liquids such as methanol, ethanol, and hot water were used separately along with the extracts of the Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka plant) and another medicinal plant named Aspilia africana. The three liquids were used against microorganisms which are the Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on the experiment, the mixed solution of methanol and Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka plant) showed the highest antimicrobial properties against the microorganisms tested. The ethanol came next and the hot water showed no antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms in the experiment. This showed that the extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka plant) and Aspilia Africana alone does not possess antibacterial properties against the bacteria tested in the experiment.
On the other hand, according to the study of Ladan, Musa, Thomas and Atobatele (2016), Bryophyllum pinnatum (Katakataka plant) is considered as a crassulescent herb with wide dispersion and has been reported to have antimicrobial efficacies. Inconsistence in its activities and properties has been suggestively connected with some factors.