StudyBoss » Egypt » African American War Conflicts

African American War Conflicts

These days we have become so accustomed to war that we don’t even know how many wars are currently active. Do you know how many there are? As I write this paper there are 10 wars and 8 active conflicts. That said most of these conflicts are taking place in Africa. But why there? Well there are a few reasons, first there isn’t a lot of education going around. Second there is a lot of poverty leading to unhappiness among the poor. But the third and most prominent reason is the muslim religion. Let’s start in Egypt. In February 2011 absolutely massive protests forced the resignation of president Hosni Mubarak.

The protests were part of the “Arab Spring. ”. A major player in the protests was Wael Ghonem, a regional executive for google. Ghonem helped mobilize the protests via a facebook page called “We Are All Khaled Said,” which was a boy tortured to death by Egyptian police. The Protests started originally started on January 25th when members of the Egyption populist movement, demonstrated peacefully in Tahrir Square. In response the Egyptian Government shut down access to cell phones and the internet in an attempt to block communication between the group.

Egyptian authorities arrested Ghonem for 11 days before releasing him. After his release he addressed the public by saying “this is not the time individuals, parties, or movements, it is time for us to say one thing. Egypt is above all! ” During the demonstrations, President Mubarak addressed the nation three times on television but refused to resign and offered few concessions. In response, the protests spread and increased in size dramatically. The protesters succeeded in forcing President Mubarak from office on February 11.

The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, headed by Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi—the long-time defense minister under Mubarak—assumed power. Moving over to South Sudan Salava Kiir Mayardit became the first president of South Sudan On July 9th. In February, forces loyal to a southern Sudanese militia leader named George Athor attacked the towns of Bor and Fanjak, killing more than 100 members of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army and civilians. In response Athor (a local official) took his forces to engage the militia in Fanjak.

Also in February, another southern Sudanese militia leader, Gabriel Tang, led a mutiny within the Joint Integrated Units, consisting of forces from the SPLA and the northern Sudanese Armed Forces. The fighting resulted in an estimated death toll of 50 people. In January, the movement called “The Arab Spring. ” caused young people to of SOuth Sudan to take up protesting in an attempt to get President Salava Kiir to resign. When confronted by security forces attempting to quell the demonstrations, the students threw rocks and chanted, “No to high prices, no to corruption,” and “Tunisia, Egypt, Sudan together as one.

Throughout the spring of 2011, student protests continued sporadically in many parts of Sudan. However, the protests never gathered the momentum of those that roiled other countries of North Africa in 2011. Moving north, Libya was the third country in the Middle East, after Tunisia and Egypt, to experience a popular uprising in 2011. The uprising led to civil war and the killing of Mu’ammar al-Qadhafi, who had led Libya since 1969. Protests began in Benghazi, Libya’s second-largest city, when hundreds of demonstrators gathered in front of a police station.

The police stationed there shot and killed many protesters. On February 17 Move demonstrations came to light and once again police responded with live ammunition. The government’s action only fanned the flames of revolution, causing many troops to desert their posts and join the rebels. This gave the rebels powerful weapons to combat the Libyan Government with. As the takeover of Benghazi unfolded, a group of Libyans formed the National Transitional Council (NTC) in the city. The NTC, chaired by former Minister of Justice Mustafa Moham-med Abdul Jalil, claimed that it represented the Libyan people.

The NTC persuaded several European nations and the United States to recognize it as the legitimate interim (temporary) government of Libya, as well as to provide military aid and other forms of assistance for the rebels. In March the UN security council established a no fly zone to protect Civilians from harm. In March NATO began military operations to try to support the rebels. Moving back south in the Democratic Republic of the Congo after 31 years of president Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire fell. The rebellion that took him down was supported by at least three neighboring countries.

The civil war began in October 1996 with an uprising by members of the country’s minority Tutsi people in eastern Zaire, along the country’s eastern borders with Rwanda and Uganda. With Mobutu’s support, Hutu refugee camps in eastern Zaire had become a base for exiled Hutu militants fighting Rwanda’s Tutsi-backed government. Rebels fighting the Ugandan Army had also established guerrilla camps there. The ADFL, which was backed by Rwandan troops and weapons and Ugandan money and weaponry, quickly swept through eastern Zaire. Mobutu, ill with cancer and living in Europe, was unable to invigorate his government or his troops.

Talks between the government and the ADFL in April as well as continuing negotiations by other African states and Western nations failed to produce a peaceful settlement of the conflict. On May 17, the rebels captured Kinshasa, the capital. Mobutu went into exile and died on September 7. At his inauguration as president on May 29, Kabila promised to hold a referendum on a new constitution by December 1998 and legislative elections by April 1999. However, Kabila had already banned public demonstrations and activities by political parties.

On July 25, 1997, government soldiers shot at least three people during an antigovernment demonstration in Kinshasa. Finally in the Sierra Leone Although Kabbah’s 1998 return to Sierra Leone was greeted with jubilation by thousands of citizens, fighting continued between ECOWAS forces and militia loyal to the former junta. Most of the conflict occurred in Sierra Leone’s diamond-rich northeastern region. In addition, thousands of civilians in rural areas were subjected to attacks by RUF forces and allied groups. In April, the UN Commission for Refugees reported that more than 50,000 Sierra Leoneans had fled to neighboring Guinea.

In an effort to end the terror, the government offered the guerrillas an amnesty in April, but the offer was refused. In August, Nigeria returned RUF leader Foday Sankoh to Sierra Leone for trial. He had been arrested in Nigeria in 1997 after arriving to buy arms. In April 1998, the British government launched an investigation into allegations that the British ambassador to Sierra Leone had aided a British mercenary force that had smuggled planeloads of arms to Kabbah’s forces in violation of a UN arms embargo. Kabbah reportedly paid the force, known as Sandline International, $10 million to arm and train his supporters.

On July 7, 1999, the government of Sierra Leone and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), the nation’s main rebel group, signed a peace accord to end an eight-year-long civil war. Under the accord, the government agreed to cancel the death sentence imposed on RUF leader Foday Sankoh for treason and mass murder and to name him vice president. In return, the RUF agreed to lay down its arms and drop demands for the expulsion from Sierra Leone of a Nigerian-led West African peacekeeping force, the Economic Community Monitoring Group (ECOMOG).

However, by the end of 1999, the rebels, who controlled about half of Sierra Leone, showed little sign of demobilizing or handing in their weapons. The civil war had escalated in January, when rebel forces nearly succeeded in capturing Freetown, the capital, after a three-month campaign. The antigovernment forces included both RUF fighters and the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC), the ousted military regime headed by Major Johnny Paul Koromah.

During the attack on Freetown, RUF forces and their AFRC allies killed an estimated 3,000 civilians and burned large areas of the city. Thousands more —many hideously mutilated by rebel forces —fled the capital into the surrounding hills. ECOMOG forces ultimately stopped the offensive, but the insurgents left a trail of death and destruction in their wake. After reading this paper you may realize three out of five of these civil wars arose primarily because of ignorance, poverty, and, the muslim religion.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.