Synesthesia is a rhetorical stylistic device and also a special feature of the perception of sensory stimuli. A stylistic figure is the circumstance that several senses are mixed together. Thus, sounds can taste or colors smell. Typical is the stylistic means for the romantic, but emerges in all epochs and genera.

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As Symploke, also Complexio, is a rhetorical stylistic device, which is used mainly in lyric poetry. The Symploke describes the simultaneous occurrence of Epiph and Anapher. This means that one word is repeated at the beginning, another at the end of several successive sentences or verses. In many examples, this is a sequence of questions that start with the same question pronoun and receive the same answer.

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The symbol is generally the simplified and deputy representation of a fact or an object, whereby this representation does not have to provide a clear conclusion on what is meant. This means that symbols are mostly pictorial, effective signs that stand for a thing or a state of affairs, and there is sometimes no obvious connection between symbol and meaning. In this case, the meaning of a symbol must be known in order to understand it (example: Blue Flower of Romanticism). Frequently, however, the symbol also illustrates the essence of an abstract concept (example: cross for Christianity). Symbols are, as a rule, very concrete objects, which stand for a general and abstract meaning. The symbol is a stylistic device and can be found in all genres of literature. Very similar stylistic figures are metaphors and allegories. 

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Syllaba anceps

Der Begriff Syllaba anceps stammt aus der Metrik. Die Syllaba anceps ist eine Silbe im Versmaß, deren Betonung in einem Vers unterschiedlich ausfallen kann. So kann das jeweilige Versmaß für die entsprechende Stelle entweder eine betonte oder unbetonte Silbe respektive in der quantitierenden Metrik eine Länge oder Kürze vorsehen (→ Hexameter).

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There are three forms of the adjective in German: the positive (basic form), the comparative (1st increment) and the superlative (2nd increment). The superlative is the highest form of the word. The comparative compares two things (X is greater than Y), the superlative compares a thing with several things, or the whole, and forms the highest level (Z is greatest).

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The subject is the object, the motif or the theme of an (artistic) representation, such as a play or a film. The subject is, therefore, the somewhat fuzzy description of the basic idea, the scheme of action, the plot, or the material of the work. Moreover, the term can be used as a synonym for the actual material of stories or lectures. In linguistics, the subject (sjužet) denotes a particular level of narrative, with the fable (Fabula) forming a similar pair as discours and histoire.

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As nouns, also nouns and main words, things, facts and creatures are designated. Basically my nouns, however, any words that have an actual thing to the content. They are divided into concrete and abstracted nouns. Specifically, all who actually think of an object (house, table, dog), while abstract abstracts describe something thought (courage, joy, love). Nouns are usually accompanied by an article and must be declined.

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Storm and stress

As storm and urge (also genius, genius period) is a literature epoch, which can be dated from 1765 to 1790. The Sturm und Drang was mainly supported by young writers who created the literary work. The concept goes back to the Kömödie Sturm und Drang by Friedrich Maximilian Klinger.

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A stanza is the arrangement of a certain number of verses to a self-contained form. The stanza is subordinated to a higher metric unit, such as the poem or the song. This means that a lyric text consists of verses composed of verses.

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In general, an essay, a short story, a narrative, and the action of an artistic work, such as a play or a movie, are referred to as a story. In linguistics, the story designates a level of narrative, with its counterpart being the plot. These terms refer to the English narrative theorist E.M. Forster, and are closely connected with the contrasting discours and histoire as well as the subject and the fable (fabula).

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As stylisticism, the simultaneous existence of different styles in the history of art, in particular in architecture, art, literature and painting, is described. Several styles are valid at the same time. The term mostly refers to architecture, fashion, or painting, but can also be applied to other areas of artistic representation. For the literature, for example, the period of the restoration, which was the period between the Congress of Vienna (1815) and the March Revolution (1848), would be characteristic. The currents of the Biedermeier as well as Vormarz existed during these years, and the movement of the young Germany was also present. Even more clearly is such a stylisticism in Fin de Siècle, a cultural movement of the turn of the century (19th / 20th century). Symbolism, Art Nouveau, Impressionism, Aestheticism and similar avangardist currents existed simultaneously (cf. Literaturepochen).

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Stylistic device

The language knows many rhetorical stylistic means, which we can use to translate words into linguistic structures. However, it is sometimes quite difficult to determine the right stylistic means in a poem analysis or homework, and to use the variety of rhetorical means correctly.

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The rapid and line-by-line interrelation between several figures in a dialog is called Stichomythie, also line speech. This means that the various speakers in the drama speak, with only one verse being omitted from each speaker, and they are alternating rapidly. Stichomythie is fast-paced and serves a strong counter-narrative. Thus it can be regarded as a stylistic device.

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The opinion is a text-point that we encounter in the German language of the advanced level. Anyone who takes a position tries to make his or her position clear on a position or a situation and to justify these other persons (often outsiders) comprehensibly, convincingly and plausibly. The opinion may be formulated in the form of the reader’s letter, comment, complaint or request, as well as a proposal.

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The profile is a means to publicly search for criminals and call them to arrest them. In addition, the profile in the school provides us with an overview of the most important data, characteristics and characteristics of a person, subject or subject, and gives the reader a summary of the essentials.

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As Byline (Russian Bylina), also Starine, is called an epic heroic part of the Russian folk poetry. It usually comprises several hundred rhythmic lines, which were often rhymed and characterized by a central cascade. The Bylines are dealing with historical or legendary subjects of Russian history, some of which also contain mythological elements (see Mythos). Such bylines have their origins in the Middle Ages, although many new creations can still be found in the 16th century. They were traditionally performed in the chant, and were rarely accompanied by music. The Byline was spread by rushing gamblers (Skomorochi), handed down orally, and continued mainly in the Volksmund.

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The term stanza was originally used synonymously to the concept of the strophe, but then meant exclusively the Okatve, also Ottaverime, an Italian stanza form. This Italian stanza consists of eight Iambian lines, all of which are made of eleven silver, the so-called Endecasillabi, with a female cadence. Most of the time the punch follows the rhyme scheme / cc, although forms with aabccbdd are common as well as other types of games are conceivable. The German form of the punch is usually based on the five-legged jubilee, the last rhyme pair, often a break in content, as in the sonnet, or as a synthesis the crowning conclusion.

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The Stabreim is a rhyme style and the German-language equivalent of the alliteration. However, the term is used primarily in connection with Germanic poetry. In the barrep, there is an equal number of adjacent sounding syllables. This means that words that stand side by side start with an equal sound. Words when they start with the same consonants or any vowel of the same quantity.

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Furthermore, in German there are individual words, often referred to as spondeus. These are, among others, Sturmnacht, Bluttat, Vollmond. But in these examples, too, we emphasize a syllable, usually the first, stronger than the other. Thus they can be spoken as spondeus, but they are only exemplary, since they correspond most closely to the ancient verse.

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As a spit is a technique in the rap (rhythmic, fast speaking), with which certain rhymes are used. Here, words or word sequences are rhymed with one another, which are (almost) identical, whereby they partly have the same character material (see Zwillingsreim), but do not mean the same thing. The effect is achieved either by the fact that the respective rhyming word has different meanings in the same spelling (see Identical rhyme), or the rhymes are separated at different points and thus new words arise. If, for example, the word sequence Alter Buimer is separated differently, it becomes Old Reimer. The noun spit as well as the verb to spit are also used mainly in the English-speaking world, but also as a term for the rap song itself.

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Voltage curve

The tension curve, sometimes referred to as the stress curve, is the representation of the rise and fall of tension in a literary text. The term “construction of tension” is often referred to in a dramatic work. In the latter, the figures are presented (exposition), then the tension rises in the excitatory moment, reaches its climax and falls on it (peripetia), then to be retarded (retarding moment) and ultimately in a catastrophe. In the classical drama the individual acts are each occupied by one of the five elements presented (cf. Katharsis).

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As Sottie, also Sotie, are the fool games in French theater of the 15th and 16th century and thus a play genre. Later on, these poses developed the poses, which are related to the swaying; the farce and the German fasting game. The fools in Sottien entertained by wit, which is interrupted by force tests, artifices, and jumps.

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Sonnet is a poem form. The Sonnet is a fourteen-line poem consisting of two four-line and two three-line verses. The quartets are called quartets and the three-string terzets. The sonnet is characterized by the use of alternating (alternating uplifting and lowering) gauges, usually using the jambus. The rhyme scheme varies. An embracing rhyme is typical of the quartet, whereas the third note usually follows the pattern cdc / dcd, cde / cde and ccd / eed. There are, however, innumerable varieties of the sonnet (cf. Literaturepochen).

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As a skit is called an interlude (intermezzo) in the music. In most cases, the skit is a piece of music that is either in the middle of the songs of an album or even interrupts it. Skits are mainly used in hip-hop, rap or R’n’B and dub, but can also be found on mixtapes. Such skits serve the self-representation of the artist, can supplement songs thematically, follow on an album usually a style and often end with a point.

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The Singularetantum, also singular word, is a noun, which occurs only in the singular, thus in the singular. The counterpart is the pluraletantum. This means a concept that exists exclusively in the plural, that is, in the plural. The plural of singularetantum is singulariatantum or singularyantum. Examples of such singularity are, for example, fruit, meat or even noise. Examples of the pluraletantum are, for example, the annals or the memoirs.

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ngular number and thus the circumstance that an object occurs only once. In German, a distinction is made between singular (singular) and plural (plural). The singular is the more frequent number in the language usage (example for the number: singular: a dog, plural: the dogs).

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Silberne Latinität

Silver Latin is an epoch of Latin literature which is directly connected with the Golden Latin. The Silver Latin is dated approximately 17 AD to AD 117, with the end point being linked to the death of the first Roman Emperor Trajan. If the previous epoch was described as golden, it means that Latin literature had its linguistic climax, which was expressed in prose, epic, lyric, and numerous elegies. The following epoch, now oriented to the products of the Golden Latin – no longer to the classical Greek models – which is why their content is sometimes described as coarser and the linguistic and stylistic level as lower.

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Heptalogy, also a seven-part work, is an artistic work consisting of seven parts. The term is usually applied to literary products – mostly prose texts – or films. In principle, however, such a heptalogy may be applied to any literary, cinematic, musical work consisting of seven parts, or generally to all kinds of sieves. What is important is that the individual works of heptalogy are mostly self-sufficient, which means that their action appears to be complete and thus works alone. Furthermore, cliffhangers, which would severely interrupt the action, are rare.

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Sidekick is a secondary role in film, art and literature, which mostly accompanies the main character of the narrative, ie the protagonist. The task of the sidekick is to learn the essential thoughts of the protagonist from him, whereby the thoughts of the main character can be transmitted indirectly to the receiver (reader, viewer, listener), without an omniscient narrator or the self-presentation through the inner monologue needs.

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Sequel is the continuation of an artistic work. This means that the term can be applied both to films, to literary and dramatic works, and also to the use of theatrical works and musical products which continue the original history of the original work. It is important for the sequel that it was not yet planned at the time of the publication of the previous work, but is always the continuation of a history which has been concluded so far. Consequently, sequels are primarily used to maximize profits when a film or a novel is particularly successful. In most cases, the same characters occur, and the action continues seamlessly. However, the action also takes decades later and refers only loosely to the previous one. The counterpart of the sequel is the prequel. The prequel is also a continuation, but the story does not continue, but shows contents that lie before the narrated (prehistory).

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Hexalogy (Six-Part)

Hexalogy is a multi-part artistic work consisting of six parts. Hexalogy means a musical, cinematic, literary or dramatic play, the term sometimes also being used in other areas, and thus applied to other six-part series. It is essential for a work of this kind that the individual parts, although in substance, belong together but appear as a rule independent. This means that the action of the respective parts is self-contained and thus also works alone. In addition, cliffhangers, who would interrupt the action abruptly, are rare. Usually, the term is referred to the literature – mostly prose works – or the film.

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The Schweifreim is one of the rhymes, which we meet very early in the teaching of German, and is, besides the pair rhyme and cross-rhyme, one of the best known representatives of his guild. The tail rhyme is always composed of six verses.

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The Schwank is a derbcomic stage, which resembles the Posse. Schwänke are often popular stories or plays, which tell of a comic situation from the national life. In swans usually two figures meet, one of the others being actual or even seemingly superior. Such pairings arise, for example, between a clever student and a simple peasant or master and a servant. The joke is usually written in prose.

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Schmonzette refers to films or literary writings, which are not very clever, in part silly, inferior, and mostly kitschy. Consequently, the term is a derogatory term for works of art that are dramatically worthless and mostly dishonest. Often, however, the term is also used synonymously for a kitschy work, and then means writings and films, which are sentimental and dishonorable, as well as appearing in a spurious way. In this case, the term “Schmonzette” can also be regarded as a subterfuge for strong kitsch.

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The pamphlet, also libel, pamphlet, and pamphlet, is a written treatise that criticizes grievances, attacks people and institutions, or even demands the implementation of specific demands. The pamphlet often has a polemical, attacking character and is often characterized by a passionate style. In this case the objectivity of the argumentation and the rhetorical design of the slogans suffer in many instances. The primary goal of the pamphlet is thus the denunciation or the targeted reduction of a person or thing.

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The shake rhyme is a rhyme type as well as a special form of the double rhyme. The shake rhyme is a rhyme play with the word meanings. The initial consonants of two or more rhyming syllables or words of a rhyme pair are put together in a new sense, which usually results in a humorous or even surprising two-line.

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Beat rhyme

The rhyme rhyme is a rhyme type and a special form of the interior rhine. A rhyme between two words or syllables, which are immediately successive and also within a line of verse, is designated as the beat rhyme. In the narrower sense, however, the percussion rhyme means only rhymes between two or more metric lifts, which are immediately adjacent to each other (compare verse).

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The description is a kind of text, which we encounter especially in German lessons. The description is a kind of description, whereby personal sensations, ie feelings and thoughts, are linked with the description of a process or a situation. The essay is therefore subjective and is written in the present (present) as well as in the form of the ego (cf. I-narrator).

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Compound sentence

A series of sentences is a combination of main sentences, which are connected by conjunctions, commas or semicolons. Principal sentences are sentences that can stand alone. They are usually made up of subject, predicate, and object (see sentence members). A series of main series can also be used as stylistic means. This is then called Parataxe or referred to as a paratactic sentence structure. If, however, the main sentence is subordinated, this is a sentence structure.

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Complex sentence

A sentence is defined as a sentence structure in the grammar, which sentence consists of a main sentence and at least one or more subordinate sentences. A main sentence is a sentence that can stand alone and is generally formed of subject, predicate, and object. A subordinate clause can not stand alone and is therefore always subordinated to a main sentence. Accordingly, each sentence, which consists not only of one main sentence or several main sentences (see series of sentences), is usually a sentence structure. Such sentence structures can be used as stylistic means, and one speaks of a hypotaxis.

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Sarcasm is described as a biting, bitter mockery or scorn, which often attacks the personal qualities of the mocked. This is the conscious ridicule of a person, a group or their values. In the literature, sarcasm usually occurs in the form of satire or polemic. In antiquity, sarcasm was regarded as a figure of speech and can therefore be regarded as a rhetorical style. Sarcasm can be expressed by direct naming of what is meant, or indirectly by irony. The talk figure is related to ridicule, cynicism and irony.

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Sapere aude

Der lateinische Ausspruch Sapere aude! erlangte vornehmlich durch den Philosophen Immanuel Kant Bekanntheit, der die Wortfolge in seinem Aufsatz Was ist Aufklärung zum Leitspruch der Aufklärung (vgl. Literaturepochen) erklärte. Kant übersetzte die Wörter Sapere aude! mit Habe Mut, dich deines eigenen Verstandes zu bedienen!, wenngleich eine wortwörtliche Übersetzung im Deutschen eher Wage es, weise zu sein! lauten würde. Doch auch, wenn diese Wortfolge vornehmlich mit Kant in Verbindung gebracht wird, geht sie tatsächlich auf den antiken Dichter Horaz zurück.

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The legend is a popular, anonymous, often fantastic, as well as an oral tradition. A legend plays at a concrete, very frequent historical place, as well as at a certain time, whereby the focus is often on a person who must assert himself in a single event on his own strength. As a rule, the legend explains a regional peculiarity, a name or folk beliefs, usually pretending to be true. The Christian counterpart of legend is the legend that tells of saints or religious events. Texts similar to the saga are the myth, the fable and the fairy tale.

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Property, text analysis

Die Sachtextanalyse ist eine Aufsatzart und natürlich eine Form der Textanalyse. Der Gegenstand der Auseinandersetzung sind Sachtexte aller Art. Dabei begegnet uns die Sachtextanalyse das erste Mal im Deutschunterricht der Oberstufe und gehört mit Sicherheit zu den einfacheren Aufsatztypen, da wir in der Regel ein gleichbleibendes Muster abarbeiten können.

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Analepses, also flashbacks and flashbacks, are described in the literature as a narrative behavior and a form of the time. The analepsis is not found in all genres, but is common in the drama and is very typical of epic texts. The Analepse refers to the circumstance which is recounted retrospectively by an event which took place in the narrated history – which is regarded as the starting point of time. This often happens in the form of memories or associations of the protagonists. Such flashbacks are used in texts to provide information. Analepses can occur in different lengths: in part, they are extremely extensive; in part, only small moments are shown. Sometimes the zeitbene is also completely changed, which is typical in narrations and novels.

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Als Rondell wird eine Gedichtform bezeichnet, die vor allem als Schreibanlass im Deutschunterricht der Grundschule verwendet wird. Das Rondell besteht aus 8 Verszeilen, also aus einer Einzelstrophe. Hier haben die Zeilen 1, 4, 7 den gleichen Inhalt und auch die Verse 2 und 8 sind gleich. Alle anderen Verszeilen, also 3, 5, 6 beinhalten Ergänzungen zum Hauptthema des Gedichts, was zumeist im Titel genannt wird. Nicht zu verwechseln ist das Rondell aus dem Deutschunterricht mit dem Rondel. Ein solches Rondel ist eine französische Gedichtform, die aus 13 oder 14 Versen gebildet wird.

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Romanticism is an epoch of art history, whose manifestations have been reflected in literature, music and art as well as in philosophy. The epoch of Romanticism can be found from the end of the 18th century to the late 19th century, with the literary romanticism being roughly dated from 1795 to 1848, and between classicism, storm and urge, sensitivity, enlightenment and Biedermeier, Vormärz and realism. The epoch is distinguished in early-romanticism (until 1804), high-power (until 1815) and late-romanticism (until 1848). The central motifs of Romanticism are the creepy, subconscious, fantastic, passionate, individual, emotional, and adventurous, which were to break and broaden the boundaries of the mind, directed against the mere thought of usefulness and industrialization. The main representatives are E.T.A. Hoffmann, Joseph von Eichendorff, Ludwig Tieck, Bettina of Arnim, the brothers Grimm, Novalis and Clemens Brentano.

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A novel is an epic large-scale prose, which is considered to be one of the most widely used literary genres. Up until the 13th century, the term meant a narrative in verse or prose, whereby later on only texts in prose with the term were designated. The novel shows a comprehensive content, which distinguishes itself from epic small forms, such as the novella or the short story, and mostly tells of the fate of a single protagonist or a group, which separates him from the epic, which is mostly a broad, total image of the epic World and is not focused on the inner development of the individual. Since the novel is an epic large-scale form, it always has a narrator (cf. narrative perspective), which appears either as a personal, neutral, auctorial or narrator, although mixed forms are quite possible. Since the novel is distinguished by a low degree of rigor and can be transformed enormously, there are, therefore, hardly uniform features characteristic of the genus.

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Role Biography

Role biography is a methodology from German and theater teaching in order to elaborate a fictitious figure and to learn about its peculiarities, peculiarities and characteristics. This engagement with a novel figure or theatrical role can help to understand the individual decisions and actions of the protagonist or deuteragonist.

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The ring parable is a central part of the ideendrama Nathan the sage of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. The parabola is an instructive text, which must be decrypted by the receiver (reader, listener). Lessing took over the essential contents of the ring parable by the poet Giovanni Boccaccio, who formulated the idea in a narrative in the 13th century. However, similar ideas can also be found in the work of Jans of the Enlightenment and in the Gesta Romanorum, a medieval collection of texts, although a similar history was already circulating in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain, Portugal) among local Jews (see Wandersage).

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